The Ebola virus is an acute viral haemorrhagic fever that infects humans and primates. The disease in particular has a high fatality rate because the body’s immune system cannot fight the infection effectively, which leaves victims to die of organ failure or their own blood loss within about three weeks of symptoms onset.
The “essay on ebola virus in nigeria” is an expository essay that will discuss the Ebola Virus. The essay will be written from a Nigerian perspective.
Let’s begin with the Introduction to this Expository Essay about the Ebola Virus.
The Ebola virus is one of the most severe and lethal viruses that humans have ever encountered. The Ebola pandemic has been traced back to the Democratic Republic of Congo, previously known as Zaire, since 1976, although the greatest Ebola outbreak to date is still happening in West Africa at the time of writing. On January 20, 2015, there were an estimated 550 000 recorded occurrences in Sierra Leone and Liberia.
The virus is widespread in several countries, including Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria, with isolated instances in the United States and Canada. Infection has the potential to spread internationally in the Netherlands and India. Despite the fact that the illness is extremely infectious, life-threatening, and has no particular cure, it may be avoided by using suitable infection-Prevention and-control measures. The research of the Ebola virus is crucial because it will pave the way for a decrease in the number of victims, the creation of an efficient medicine, and the containment of the epidemic.
The Ebola virus belongs to the Philoviridae family of viruses. The virus has a filamentous form, as its name suggests. The Marburg virus and the Ebolavirus are two key generations of the virus family in medicine. Because of their numerous similarities in the life cycle, water storage regions, transmission routes, clinical presentation, treatment, and preventative measures, bacteria of these two species are investigated and presented together. The main distinction is that whereas Marburgvirus is spread by forest-dwelling bats like the savannah, Ebolavirus is spread by bats that live in deep rain forests.
Ebolavirus Zaire, Ebolavirus Sudan, Ebolavirus reston, Ebolavirus cote d’Ivore, and Ebolavirus bugs are five subspecies of Ebolavirus that have been identified and named after the countries where they were originally detected. Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebolavirus Ebola E. Sudan is almost similar to E. Zaire, with the exception of a somewhat lower death rate. E case’s death rate. According to reports, Sudan has a population of 40-60% while E. Zaire has a population of 60-90 percent.
As a zoonosis, Ebola was first transmitted to humans. Bats of various species may be found all throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, including. Humans may get infected by biting and scratching bats, or by being exposed to their excretions and excretions via torn skin or mucous membranes. It is also possible for the virus to propagate to other end users. Deer, wildebeests, chimps, gorillas, monkeys, and other non-humans have all been reported in Africa. The virus was introduced to people from the wild as a result of attacks when hunting these animals or handling contaminated animal corpses. During pregnancy and delivery, outbreaks tend to be aggravated. The presence of numerous diseases seems to worsen epidemics, according to records.
The EVD virus is very infectious. Direct contact with infected bodily fluids such as blood, fluid, and discharge, or the patient’s tissues, as well as direct contact with pollutants such as clothes and bed linen, may transmit infection in the community and in a hospital environment. Traditional burial practices, which involve corpse cleansing, removal of fingernails, toenails, and clothes, are one of the key causes for the epidemic’s fast spread. Health professionals, as well as caregivers, are at a higher risk of developing the illness. Furthermore, the surviving male’s sperm has been shown to be contaminated for up to 82 days following the beginning of symptoms. A person is infected as long as the virus is present in their bodily fluids. The transmission of the Ebola virus is widely assumed, although tests have yet to confirm it.
Introduction to Clinical Practice
Various kinds of Ebola virus produce EVD with different clinical symptoms. The incubation time of the Ebola virus is typically thought to be between 2 and 21 days. Ebola virus illness manifests a wide range of symptoms that emerge early in the prodromal stage, leading to a wide range of diagnoses, including not only other viral hemorrhagic diseases, but also malaria, typhoid, cholera, and other diseases. non-infectious causes of bleeding and bacterial rickettsia
The sickness begins in the same way as severe hemorrhagic fever does. Patients experience a high fever, with temperatures ranging from 39 to 400 degrees Celsius, as well as bodily pains and exhaustion. If the fever continues throughout the day, further gastrointestinal symptoms such as epigastric discomfort, vomiting, and/or bloodless diarrhea may emerge. 3-5.
Macular degeneration may be seen after 4–5 days of sickness, however it may not be clearly visible on dark skin. The bleeding from various locations occurs after this stage. In women, bleeding may be observed in the upper and lower digestive tracts, the respiratory system, the urinary tract, and the vagina. Petechiae develop continuously in the buccal mucosa, skin, and conjunctivae. A considerable volume of wet diarrhea (five liters or more per day) and repeated cleaning bumps that prohibit any oral fluid intake add to the loss of surplus fluid, resulting in dehydration. Bending, intense weariness, and hypovolemic shock may occur if fluid changes are insufficient.
In 60% of the patients, hypovolemic shock was documented. Patients sense chilly edges despite a high body temperature owing to peripheral vasoconstriction. It is possible to identify rapid and fast pulses, tachypnea, oliguria, and anuria. At the same time, symptoms including asthma, stomach discomfort, muscular and joint pain, and headaches become more prevalent. Coughing and dyspnoea are frequent signs of pulmonary bleeding, although other respiratory symptoms are unusual. A frequent clinical characteristic is conjunctival injection. Hypoactive and hyperactive delirium, which are characterized by reduced mental performance, confusion, dizziness, and odd tremors, are the most prevalent neurologic symptoms. Internal bleeding may develop as the condition progresses, although most patients are already in a coma at this point.
Only 5% of individuals had gastrointestinal bleeding before passing away, according to reports. The majority of recorded fatalities occurred between the 7th and 12th day of sickness as a consequence of shock. By day 10, 40% of patients’ symptoms were improved, despite the fact that symptoms such as mouth sores and thrush had already emerged. The majority of patients who made it to day 13 had a good chance of recovering. Stiff necks and worse cognitive skills have been linked to late mortality in some individuals who demonstrated early improvement in symptoms.
In the study of the pathology of the Ebola virus illness, post-mortem investigations and biopsies are very important. Because handling models poses a biosafety risk to autopsy workers, pathological explanations for only a small number of disorders are accessible.
Oval-shaped or filamentous eosinophilic intracellular inclusions generated by a mixture of viral nucleobases are the most typical findings of Haematoxylin and eosine-stained tissue components. These implants may be detected in macrophages, hepatocytes, endothelial cells, connective tissue fibroblasts, and other cells. Infected tissue cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, epithelial cells and sweat glands, intermediate cells and kidney tubes, seminiferous tubes, endothelial cells, and endocardial cells are stained immunohistochemically. In addition, antigens abound in necrotic cells and cellular debris. Free viral particles are abundant in the alveolar glands, liver sinusoids, connective tissue cells of the testis, and dermal collagen, according to electron microscopy. Portal triads cells, red spleen pulp macrophages, and tubular kidney epithelial cells all show karyorrhexis and death.
Histopathological signs in liver tissue include hepatocyte necrosis that is localized or widespread, as well as central steatosis. Despite the fact that inflammation is generally modest, kupfer cell hyperplasia and infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells are seen. Congestion, hemorrhage, and intra-alveolar edoema are present in the infected lung, although inflammation is minimal. The lamina propria of the small intestine and colon have been found to have a concentrated infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells. Dermal edoema, localized hemorrhage, petechiae, ecchymosis, and macular rashes are all seen in skin biopsies. Apoptosis and necrosis have resulted in extensive lymphoid depletion in the spleen and lymph nodes. Although acute tubular necrosis is more prevalent, renal inflammation is undetectable. Even if viral antigens are present in the cardiac endocardium, the myocardium is unaffected. Panencephalitis and perivascular lymphocyte infiltration may be seen on brain histology.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed a set of procedures for preventing and controlling infection in health care workers, including safety precautions to be adopted at different phases of EVD patient treatment.
1. Precautionary measures in general
It is suggested that health workers take preventative steps while treating all patients, regardless of the ailment, since diagnosing EVD patients at the outset of the disease is challenging. These are the following:
2. Keeping your hands clean
Before touching infectious goods, put on disposable gloves. Before participating in operations where bodily fluids may be present, use eye protection and a coat.
3. Maintaining good hand hygiene
Hand hygiene should be performed using soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer solution before donning gloves and protective equipment (PPE) after exposure to a patient’s bodily fluids, after contact with a contaminated place or equipment, or after removing PPE, according to WHO standards.
Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) (PPE)
PPE should be worn before entering EVD patient care facilities and removed before leaving the facility, according to WHO recommendations. Any contact with used PPE on the face or on sensitive skin should be avoided. Covers made of PPE,
- The proper size is non-sterile gloves.
- Long-sleeved, non-slip dress
- Shield for the face
- Shoes with a lock to prevent piercing and entrance
5. Patient placement and supervision
Patients with EVD, whether suspected or confirmed, should be maintained in isolation and, if feasible, in a single room. Otherwise, they must be put in beds separated by at least 1 m. Visitors should be allowed to come and go as they want, with the exception of those who are important for the patient’s well-being like a parent.
Used equipment and other goods are managed.
If alternate equipment is not accessible, it is advised that equipment such as stethoscopes be refined and disinfected before usage. It is not recommended to reuse parental equipment, surgical blades, syringes, or needles. They should be disposed of in piercing-resistant barrels. Non-leaky bags or containers should be used to dispose of all solid and non-solid waste.
Non-perishable bags containing used linen should be collected after usage. They should be cleaned with water and soap, rinsed, then soaked for 30 minutes in 0.05 percent chlorine before drying.
All barrels must be kept upright and closed when they are 34% full. The outside sides of these containers should be disinfected with 0.5 percent chlorine before being removed from the wards.
1. Take care of the environment
Over PPE, cleaners should wear strong rubber gloves and non-slip rubber boots. Cleaning work locations and the hospital floor should be done using water and cleaning supplies. At least once a day, this should be done. 0.5 percent chlorine should be used to clean and disinfect certain filthy areas and pollutants.
2. Biological control
Autopsies, post-mortem biopsies, and other laboratory testing on certified EVD tissue samples or suspected patients should be done sparingly and only by competent people. When handling templates, full PPE should be worn. All specimens should be presented in antiseptic containers that are clearly identified, non-leaky, and non-breakable.
It is never a good idea to wash or embalm a body. They should be packed in two bags and buried right away after being treated with 0.5 percent chlorine. If required, certain cultural and religious rituals may be altered, but body care should be kept to a minimum and full PPE should always be worn.
3. In the event of contact with diseased bodily fluids
All existing activities should be made safe and dry as soon as possible, and PPE should be removed carefully. Impacted skin should be cleansed with soap and water, and any affected pores, such as the conjunctiva, should be rinsed thoroughly. For the next 21 days, the individual should be checked for fever and other symptoms.
Immunosuppression, increased vascular permeability, and coagulopathy are all part of the Ebola virus’s pathogenesis, which is comparable to that of most other filoviruses. The Ebola virus may enter the scrotum through skin scrapes, mucosal membranes, or an unintentional injection. The virus infects monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells before being transported to the circulatory system via lymphatics. It then infects tissue macrophages and fibroblastic reticular cells in the liver and spleen. Macrophages, dendritic cells, and kupfer cells are the virus’s principal cellular targets. Because the Ebola virus interacts with a wide range of cellular proteins, the infection is characterized by widespread tissue and organ tropism.
Immunopathology (number 5)
The immune system plays a critical role in regulating the transmission of the virus in many circumstances. The tissues and organs of the fatal EVD patients, on the other hand, display reduced inflammation, indicating that the immune response has been compromised.
Filovirus structural proteins, such as VP24 (Virion protein) and VP35, have been discovered to block interferon responses, allowing them to bypass the host’s natural defenses. Apoptosis of natural killer cells and T lymphocytes was discovered in histopathology, indicating the reduction of dynamic immune responses, as previously indicated.
The Ebola virus infection, like other complicated phones, induces a large release of pro-inflammatory and vasoactive chemicals. Despite the fact that pro-inflammatory mediators increase inflammation and inflammation, the infection system’s spread is not successfully managed. This is because active chemicals cause vasodilation.
6. Coagulopathy and endothelial dysfunction
The virus infects endothelium and endocardial cells, causing damage (18). Internal bleeding, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, and cardiovascular failure result from this. Platelet aggregation and usage are caused by endothelial injury. Infected monocytes and macrophages produce more inflammatory stimuli and produce more surface tissue factor protein, which increases coagulation breakdown. Hepatocellular injury reduces the generation of coagulation factors, fibrinogen, protein C, and protein S. Other social and economic issues linked to the Ebola virus outbreak
In light of the present epidemic, in addition to the high number of lives lost to the illness, it has caused a slew of additional major issues not only in Ebola-affected nations, but also throughout Africa.
Agriculture makes a substantial contribution to the African economy. As more farmers succumb to the illness and many others flee their fields for fear of acquiring it, these nations are experiencing a serious labor shortage and a drop in food output. Experts believe that food shortages will occur in the near future.
The scarcity of personnel has a particularly negative impact on chocolate firms, as well as many other sectors. The greatest cork-producing nations are Nigeria and the Ivory Coast, although the majority of employees come from Liberia and Guinea. To prevent the virus from spreading to cork employees, international firms such as Nestle and Mars have implemented education and fundraising efforts.
Due to a dangerous illness that has ravaged the nation, many schools have been shuttered. Aside from the effect on schooling, the government’s child support system has come to a halt as a consequence.
Another industry that has been hit by the pandemic is tourism. Despite the fact that Africa is a bigger continent than Europe, the United States, and China combined, travelers to the continent typically treat it as if it were a single nation since the Ebola outbreak. Tanzania, for example, is an East African nation situated over 6,000 miles from the Ebola-affected region and is a renowned wildlife refuge. According to reports, Tanzanian hotels lost 50% of their reservations in 2015.
Because of the Ebola epidemic, several African governments have declined to host foreign gatherings and conferences. Morocco, for example, is requesting a delay of the Africa Cup of Nations, which is set to take place in January 2015. “There is no way we can be serious about Moroccan people’ health and safety,” the administration claims.
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Ebola virus is a deadly disease that has been spreading across Africa. The current outbreak in West Africa has had the most cases and fatalities to date, with over 11,000 confirmed cases and more than 5,000 deaths. There have also been several outbreaks in Central and East Africa since 2014. Reference: ebola virus transmission.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the cause of Ebola virus?
A: The Ebola virus is an RNA-based pathogen from the family Filoviridae. It causes severe fever, in some cases up to 50°C or 122°F and hemorrhaging that leads to both external and internal bleeding.
What is the description of Ebola?
A: Ebola is a virus that causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. It was first identified in 1976 near
Sudans capital, Khartoum.
What is the conclusion of Ebola?
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